Focusing on the Criminal Tribes Act of that insti- tutionalized notions of hereditary criminals, for example, Sanjay Nigam sees the legislation as a commentary on Indian society as well as on a subsection of the population whose deviance was traceable to Indian culture. Notes from the field: T Sarkar U Butalia Editor. Through the decades support for codiication oscillated between the need for law and the need to reform a legal morass; less disputed were the underlying premises of ushering Indian law into history and codi- ication as progress. All senior police oicers are graduates of the elite Indian Police Service and have no experience with hands-on policing. It shows that regulating sexuality in its various dimensions, such as behavior, marriage, sexual health and dis- ease, fertility, sexual labor, media representations, and the sex industry, are crucial mechanisms through which states are generated and the ex- pansions and modiications in governance are justiied. Interviews with Kinnars, Kothisand working-class gay men.
In a large hall in Mumbai on an overcast July aternoon insome one hundred women have gathered to react to an imminent state- wide ban on dance bars.
Stakes and states: sexual discourses from New Delhi
And, although Hansen and Stepputat argue that colonial forms of sovereignty are more spectral, fragmented, and racial, their traces are still discernible in the responses by members of the Delhi Police to my discussion questions. But if euphemisms are necessary, especially in sexual crimes involving young children, un- natural serves just as well; indeed more linguistically formal references to apprakrit maithun unnatural sexual intercourse are found in the crime records, but only sparingly. From its start, the role of the police was to impose and maintain law and order, not to provide service and security to their com- munities, and they were accountable to the masters and not to the com- munities, patterns that endure to date. And it hones the understanding that the institutions and agencies, spaces, routinized prac- tices, and discourses composing states are thoroughly imbued by consid- erations of sexuality. Across this archive medical jurisprudence is consistently refracted through the lens of legal guidelines and what is considered common- sensical reasoning.
As such, it sits squarely within a rich tradition of anthropological and sociological ethnographies of the state that use the minutiae of ieldwork to critical ends. Framing the apposition between sexual assault on women and the antisodomy law are the perceptions that sexual crime against women is an egregious social problem because of its scale and seriousness, and Sectioncovering crimes related to unnatural sex, does not warrant attention. The end of colonialism and a dynamic postcolonial context notwithstanding, the rank and ile of the police still stand at the threshold of state and society and embody the paradox of being both state agents and subalterns, while practicing the enforcement of law in lawed ways. Kundumkara Govindam and Another, the Kerala High Court justice cited Khanu at length and ruled that forcible sex between the thighs of a fourteen-year-old girl was within the ambit of carnal intercourse against the order of nature and was therefore punishable under Section It helps to uncover androcentricity of respect that has been under-examined in market- ing theory. Starting with the legal record of Khairati, the notion of the habitual sodomite inds sporadic though consistent expression in the archive of Section